I have complied this list from different resources. I will add more digital logic projects in this list. A Vending machine with full display for cash submitted and change returned as well as items dispensed.

Interfacing a keyboard to a logic circuit that detects at run-time the occurrence of 5- letter words or one particular word while a user types in a paragraph of English. A running counter increments every time this condition is met. A shooting range made of transducers that pick up the normal intensity of LASER beams coming out of a normal source.

The shooting range should provide the user with a LASER gun, which the user will point towards specific targets. There should be at least 4 targets, and all of them should be switching randomly from one to another after a fixed time period. The person gets a point if he points accurately towards the target that is currently switched on. A water-tank fill-up and overflow control mechanism with alarm.

A circuit needs to be designed that displays the present level of water in the tank. The circuit also opens an outlet valve when the level in the tank exceeds a particular level, and finally opens the inlet valve when the water in the tank falls below a particular level. A state machine maintains the temperature of the house between two extreme limits set by the user, as well as the intensity of lights in the room and secures the perimeter using input taken from temperature, light and IR sensors.

Control of domestic electrical appliances e. A circuit is required that would act like a bridge between the electrical appliance in the house and the land-line telephone set. The user should be able to remotely switch on or off appliances in his house by dialing his home telephone number, entering a password and then selecting the device to be turned on or off.

Voice clap only activated Moore state machine design with synchronous reset. A state-machine based digital combination lock circuit which transitions from one state to the next at the clap of hands, not on the clock. The circuit should be intelligent enough not to trigger at other sounds. The decision must be taken after the entire code has been entered. The lock must have at least 10, possible combinations. A generator circuit is required that generates pulses of varying duty cycle all with a 1-sec period depending on user selection.

The transition from one type of pulse to the next must always occur at the 1-sec boundary. A detector circuit should be able to successfully detect all pulses with a period less than 1 sec i. The result should appear on 7-segment displays. A reference number between 1 and 30 is fed to the circuit beforehand. The user guesses the stored number by typing it onto the keypad. The user has 5 tries to guess the number. Nevertheless, a list of a few more digital logic design projects list with logic gates for beginners is given as follows.

Also capable of giving average. Notify me of new posts by email.The project entitled Programmable Logic Circuits FPGA proposes to design complex logic circuits using several thousand, even hundreds of thousands of transistors while maintaining reasonable development times. A logic gate can be defined as digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through or stops it. These gates are related to Boolean Algebra.

These gates allow signals to pass through them only when some logic is satisfied. A semiconductor diode P-N junction acts as a closed switch when it is forward biased, i. It acts as an open circuit when it is reversed biased, i. Information converted into electrical form and suitable for transmission is called a signal.

There are two types of signals Analog signals are a continuous variation of voltage or current. They are essentially a single-valued function of time. A sine wave is a fundamental analogue signal. Digital signal is those which can take only discrete stepwise values.

## Logic Gates

Binary system that is extensively used in digital electronics employs just two levels of a signal. What is a transistor? Explain transistor action. Discuss input and output characteristics also. Identify the gate. Draw its logic symbol and write its truth table.

On the basis of following circuit diagramexplain transistor as a switch. Plot graph between input voltage and output voltage. Show cut off region, the active region and saturation region in the graph also.

Which of the region regions represents I. Switched- on region and ii. Switched-off region? Potentiometer as Variable Resistor: Using a potentiometer as a variable resistor; verify the varying current using a multimeter.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Mohan R. Digital logic gates may have more than one input but generally only have one digital output. Most logic gates have two inputs and one output. Knowledge Cloud A gate is a digital circuit that is designed for performance a particular logical operation.

The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often, as the circuit processes data. Individual logic gates can be connected together to form combinational or sequential circuits or larger logic gate functions. Different types of logic gate implements different Boolean function, that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output.

Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gate, one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out, or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic, and therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic.

A large number of electronic circuits in computers, control units, and so on are made up of logic gates. These process signals represent either true or false. The most common symbols used to represent logic gates are shown below.

AND gate: The AND gate is a basic digital logic gate that implements logical conjunction - it behaves according to the truth table. In another sense, the function of AND effectively finds the minimum between two binary digits, just as the OR function finds the maximum.

Therefore, the output is always 0 except when all the inputs are 1. We will start with a 2 input AND gate. The symbol for a 2 input AND gate is as follows. OR gate: 20 The OR gate is a digital logic gate that implements logical disjunction - it behaves according to the truth table. If neither input is high, a LOW output 0 results. In another sense, the function of OR effectively finds the maximum between two binary digits, just as the complementary AND function finds the minimum.

We will start with a 2 input OR gate. The symbol for a 2 input OR gate is as follows. NOT gate or inverter : This is the simplest form of logic gate and has only 1 input and 1 output. Simply the purpose of this gate is to invert the input signal so if a Logic 0 is at the input, the output will be at Logic 1 and vice versa.

The symbol for a NOT gate is as follows.Project Report on Logic Gates : A gate is defined as a digital circuit which follows some logical relationship between the input and output voltages. It is a digital circuit which either allows a signal to pass through as stop, it is called a gate. The Logic Gates are building blocks at digital electronics. They are used in digital electronics to change on voltage level input voltage into another output voltage according to some logical statement relating them.

A logic gate may have one or more inputs, but it has only one output. The relationship between the possible values of input and output voltage is expressed in the form of a table called truth table or table of combinations. Truth table of a Logic Gates is a table that shows all the input and output possibilities for the logic gate. The two values of logic statements one denoted by the binary number 1 and 0.

The binary number 1 is used to denote the HIGH value.

### Logic Gates Project ideas for Science and School Level students

The logical statements that logic gates follow are called Boolean expressions. There are three types of basic logic gates which follows Boolean expression. The OR gate is a two inputs and one output logic gate. It combing the input A and B with the output Y following the Boolean expression.

OR operation OR operator. The various possible combinations of the input and output of the OR gate can be easily understand with the help of the electrical circuit. In this electric circuit, a parallel combination of two switches A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L. The following interference can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit is :. As we see truth table we found same as it is observation. The AND gate is also a two inputs and one output logic gate.

It combines the input A and B with the output Y following the Boolean expression. The Boolean algebra, the multiplication symbol. The various possible combination of the input and outputs of the AND gate can be easily found with the help of the electrical circuit.

Here a series combination of the switch A and B is connected to a battery and a lump L. The following conclusions can be easily drawn from the working of electrical circuit :. As we see truth table we found same as it is observed experimentally. The NOT gate is a one inputs and one output logic gate.

It combines the input A with the output following the Boolean expression. Y not equal A. The way, the NOT gate gives the output it is also called inverter. It is represented by the symbol. The Boolean algebrathe negative sign - is called NOT.

The possible input and output combination of a NOT gate can be easily discussed with the help of electrical circuit.

### Logic Gates - Class 12 Physics Investigatory Project Report Free PDF Download

Here, the switch is connected in parallel to the lump of the battery. The following conclusion can be easily drawn from the working of the electrical circuit. It follows that in the given electrical circuit, the lump glows or output is obtainedwhen the switch A is not closed. Far this reason, the electrical circuit is called not gate.

The two possible input-output combinations can be written in the form of the table.

It is called truth table of NOT gate.A logic gate is an idealized or physical electronic device implementing a Boolean functiona logical operation performed on one or more binary inputs that produces a single binary output. Depending on the context, the term may refer to an ideal logic gateone that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-outor it may refer to a non-ideal physical device [1] see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison.

Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switchesbut can also be constructed using vacuum tubeselectromagnetic relays relay logicfluidic logicpneumatic logicopticsmoleculesor even mechanical elements. With amplification, logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed, allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logicand therefore, all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic.

Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexersregistersarithmetic logic units ALUsand computer memoryall the way up through complete microprocessorswhich may contain more than million gates. In reversible logicToffoli gates are used.

A functionally complete logic system may be composed of relaysvalves vacuum tubesor transistors. The simplest family of logic gates uses bipolar transistorsand is called resistorâ€”transistor logic RTL.

Unlike simple diode logic gates which do not have a gain elementRTL gates can be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions. RTL gates were used in early integrated circuits. For higher speed and better density, the resistors used in RTL were replaced by diodes resulting in diodeâ€”transistor logic DTL.

To reduce power consumption still further, most contemporary chip implementations of digital systems now use CMOS logic. Increasingly, these fixed-function logic gates are being replaced by programmable logic deviceswhich allow designers to pack many mixed logic gates into a single integrated circuit. The field-programmable nature of programmable logic devices such as FPGAs has reduced the 'hard' property of hardware; it is now possible to change the logic design of a hardware system by reprogramming some of its components, thus allowing the features or function of a hardware implementation of a logic system to be changed.

Other types of logic gates include, but are not limited to: [3]. Electronic logic gates differ significantly from their relay-and-switch equivalents.

They are much faster, consume much less power, and are much smaller all by a factor of a million or more in most cases. Also, there is a fundamental structural difference.

The switch circuit creates a continuous metallic path for current to flow in either direction between its input and its output.

The semiconductor logic gate, on the other hand, acts as a high- gain voltage amplifierwhich sinks a tiny current at its input and produces a low-impedance voltage at its output. It is not possible for current to flow between the output and the input of a semiconductor logic gate. Another important advantage of standardized integrated circuit logic families, such as the and families, is that they can be cascaded. This means that the output of one gate can be wired to the inputs of one or several other gates, and so on.

Systems with varying degrees of complexity can be built without great concern of the designer for the internal workings of the gates, provided the limitations of each integrated circuit are considered. The output of one gate can only drive a finite number of inputs to other gates, a number called the ' fan-out limit'. Also, there is always a delay, called the ' propagation delay ', from a change in input of a gate to the corresponding change in its output.

When gates are cascaded, the total propagation delay is approximately the sum of the individual delays, an effect which can become a problem in high-speed circuits. Additional delay can be caused when many inputs are connected to an output, due to the distributed capacitance of all the inputs and wiring and the finite amount of current that each output can provide.

The binary number system was refined by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz published ininfluenced by the ancient I Ching ' s binary system. In an letter, Charles Sanders Peirce described how logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits. Lee De Forest 's modification, inof the Fleming valve can be used as a logic gate.

Ludwig Wittgenstein introduced a version of the row truth table as proposition 5. Walther Botheinventor of the coincidence circuitgot part of the Nobel Prize in physics, for the first modern electronic AND gate in Konrad Zuse designed and built electromechanical logic gates for his computer Z1 from â€”False represents 0, and true represents 1. Depending on the type of logic gate being used and the combination of inputs, the binary output will differ. A logic gate can be thought of like a light switch, wherein one position the output is offâ€”0, and in another, it is onâ€”1.

Logic gates are commonly used in integrated circuits IC. The following illustration and table show the circuit symbol and logic combinations for an AND gate. In the symbol, the input terminals are at left and the output terminal is at right. The output is "true" when both inputs are "true.

It reverses the logic state. If the input is 1, then the output is 0. If the input is 0, then the output is 1. It acts in the manner of the logical operation "and" followed by negation. The output is "false" if both inputs are "true. Its output is "true" if both inputs are "false. Its output is "true" if the inputs are the same, and "false" if the inputs are different.

Using combinations of logic gates, complex operations can be performed. In theory, there is no limit to the number of gates that can be arrayed together in a single device. But in practice, there is a limit to the number of gates that can be packed into a given physical space. Arrays of logic gates are found in digital ICs. As IC technology advances, the required physical volume for each individual logic gate decreases and digital devices of the same or smaller size become capable of performing ever-more-complicated operations at ever-increasing speeds.

The logic state of a terminal can, and generally does, change often as the circuit processes data. Logic gates can be made of resistors and transistors, or diodes. A resistor can commonly be used as a pull-up or pull-down resistor. Pull-up or pull-down resistors are used when there are any unused logic gate inputs to connect to either a logic level 1 or 0 respectively. This prevents any false switching of the gate. Please check the box if you want to proceed.Logic gates are some of the basic building blocks of digital logic circuitry.

In this Instructable we will talk about a few of the simplest of these devices, and see some of the fun things you can do with them. So what are logic gates? Logic gates have one or more input terminals, and the voltage at these terminals are translated into Boolean inputs of 1 or 0.

Typically a high voltage is read as a 1 and a low voltage as a 0. These inputs can come from anything, be it a battery, a sensor, some IC or even another logic gate. The logic gate also has one output terminal, and the voltage at this terminal will be high or low depending on the type of gate and the inputs received. Logic gates may be strung together and combined almost infinitely, and such combinations can be designed to make pretty complex decisions based on any number of variables.

There is a Dcircuits circuit that goes with this Instructable here. You will need to fork the circuit to be able to experiment with the circuitry like we will a little later, but if you can't be bothered its OK if you just hit the simulate button and get started.

Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. The first type of gate we will look at is the AND gate. The circuit symbol for a two-input AND gate is that funny bullet-shaped thing. The terminals marked A and B are the inputs, and the one marked F is the output.

An AND gate determines its output by the following rule: if both inputs are 1, the output is 1; if either or both inputs are 0, the output is 0 recall that 0 and 1 are "low" and "high" voltages, respectfully. The table below the diagram is called a truth table. This kind of table lists all possible combinations of inputs, and shows you what their corresponding outputs would be. This particular truth table is for the AND operation; notice that the output is 1 only when both inputs are 1, as you would expect.

Most logic gates can be made quite easily with transistors. In the circuit diagram above you can see a simple AND gate built using two transistors.

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